Athena is the virgin goddess of wisdom, martial strategy, weaving, and housekeeping. She's technically the daughter of Zeus and Metis, but she came out of Zeus's head (this page has more details). She inherited many gifts from her father Zeus - she held his aegis (goatskin shield), could throw his lightning bolts, change fate, and give the gift of prophecy.
This goddess is the namesake of Athens, Greece. She won over its townspeople in a competition against Poseidon; she created an olive tree, which fared far better in the rocky hills around the city than Poseidon's creation (the horse).
Like the other goddesses, Athena didn't tolerate disrespect. She turned Arachne, a talented weaver, into a spider when she boasted she was better than Athena at weaving - and proved it.